It is indeed quite difficult to determine the real strength of the non-governmental cultural sector and its ability to influence decision-making processes, because there is a great disparity between proclaimed and abstract goals of cultural policy and the actual reality of the decision-making process. Herna O. S11/319841/EK/18645. The Croatian Museaologist Association appoints three out of seven members of the Council for Museums. Different authors have quite differing views on the history and tradition of civil society involvement in Croatia, particularly in regards to the period of socialist government. Civil society plays key roles in pushing for new laws, programmes, policies or strategies on climate change, in holding governments to account on their commitments; in identifying the lack of joined-up government responses to climate change; and in ensuring that national policy making does not forget the poor and vulnerable. Zakošek, Nenad: Civilno društvo, političke stranke i građanske udruge, Neprofitni centar, Zagreb, 5 (2000). The fourth group of civil-society organisations include "all other" groups, from local branches of existing international non-governmental organizations (i.e. Rather, Gramsci located civil society in the political superstructure. 21-25). Before one d… In order to overcome the challenges of highly centralized decision-making, and with the aim of including civil society representatives in cultural policy-making, in 2001 the Parliament adopted the Law on Cultural Councils. In October 2014, for the first time in recent history, the government of Myanmar decided to organize a public consultation to inform the development of a national policy. Faced with such loud protests from all artist organizations, the Ministry of Culture decided to bargain with the other ministries and found a way to avoid the application of these new measures to artistic creation. This law puts self-employed artists in a somewhat privileged position compared to artists holding permanent jobs in public institutions or other self-employed individuals in the Republic of Croatia, but the Law is particularly interesting for this analysis, because the artists and professional organizations have an almost exclusive right to decide which artists will be granted this status. Landry, Charles; Matarasso François (1999) Balancing act: twenty-one strategic dilemmas in cultural policy, Cultural Policies Research and Development Unit, Policy Note. The role of professional organizations is recognized in that they are specifically mentioned in several laws that regulate different segments of cultural life, and will be further elaborated in this paper. In the programme of the Ministry of Culture for the period 2000-2004, Cultural Councils are described as a "new centre for decision making" which will help in transforming the Ministry of Culture into a coordinator of the "cultural co-deciding process". This is achieved by influencing public opinion on matters of culture and art through the participation, in an advisory capacity, of individuals and non-governmental organizations in decisions made by governmental bodies and through different forms of lobbying. According to the finding of this report, non-governmental organizations, cultural institutions and individual artists exert a strong influence on the formulation and implementation of cultural policies (Katunarić, 1998) which includes their autonomous creation of arts’ programmes and also their influence on the decisions taken by governmental bodies and the bodies of local administration and self-government. The diagnosis of AIDS in 1982 in South Africa was followed by a rapid rise in the number of people living with the virus and dying from AIDS-related illnesses. (Dragojević, 1998). Katunarić, Vjeran; Cvjetičanin, Biserka (2001) Hrvatska u 21. stoljeću: Strategija kulturnog razvitka, Ministarstvo kulture Republike Hrvatske, Zagreb. It is a community of conscious citizens, who are intelligent and well aware of the current political, economic, cultural and social situations in the world and their country in particular. In fact, the amount earmarked in the budget for the social and health benefits was drastically reduced, so that today those benefits can be labelled as "symbolic" rather than substantive. politicians, officials (administration) and producers of public goods. attainment of good governance and development. Čopič, Vesna 2002. Media and cultural aspects The new development The Croatian Association of Librarians appoints three members to the Council for Libraries. (1) Nina Obuljen, Research Fellow, Department for Culture and Communication, Institute for International Relations (IMO), Ul.Lj.F.Vukotinovića 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. of Cultures | Livre: The Association of Self-employed Artists decides which professional organizations will have the right to send representatives to the Commissions for each specific cultural sector. Still, in order to give the necessary legitimacy to the work of the councils and to establish a true partnership with the civil society representatives, the Law on Cultural Councils will need to be amended or changed. ?výc h\î¯& ¤÷+œn$Ž. Then, I will outline how the respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and political participation aid and strengthen democratic governance. 4, Council of Europe Publishing. HerausgeberIn | Editor | Éditeur: Zrinjka The 1990s and 2000s were periods of intense civil societal activity in Latin American democracies. This was supposed to be one of the most important reforms in the cultural policy decision-making process in Croatia as well as a major shift from the existing practices of financing culture to a more democratic process. The role of civil society in the policy making process; article published in a special bilingual supplement (Romanian/English) of 2 Magazine in Romania. Civil society can play several roles in the policy-making cycle (Figure 1) through its interaction with the public and private sector. Advocacy and lobbying are surely the most visible and common ways a civil society influences the policy-making process in all sectors of public policy. These contributions are, under certain conditions, paid out of the state budget. All of this will be established through the comparison between democratic countries, and less democratic or authoritarian regimes. While democracy is ensured by elections, testing the quality of this democracy is another and more complicated issue. politicians, officials (administration) and producers of public goods. It is linked to the existence of public institutions and structure that are capable of a more comprehensive reflection and synthesis, meaning the transformation of individual interests into a general interest. Civil society's ability to influence government policy will come under discussion later this month in the Scottish city of Glasgow at the CIVICUS World Assembly (Jun. These councils are primarily responsible for the establishment of professional standards both for the functioning of institutions and for setting the minimal requirements for employees and professional staff. The Croatian Council for Cultural Heritage(8) has a president and eight members. Some of the provisions in these laws have been in existence even before democratic changes in the early 1990s, showing that there was a recognition of the need for a certain degree of pluralism even before a multi-party system was introduced in 1990. Stubbs, P. (2001) Politička ekonomija civilnog društva, Globalizacija i njene refleksije u Hrvatskoj, Zagreb. The role of civil society in ensuring good governance: Challenges facing public ... enhance community cohesion and decision-making. most prominent in the civil society space (VanDyck, 2017, p. 1). Neprofitni sektor, Zagreb, 5 (2000) 4. Still, the example of this Law also shows that the introduction of new pieces of legislation does not necessarily bring the desired changes, especially if it does not take into account the realities of public policy-making and everyday life. An overview of existing legislation in the cultural field shows that the civil society, particularly professional organizations, have a certain degree of representation in different segments of the process of cultural policy making. There are many examples of efficient and cooperative communication between civil society representatives and policy makers that have resulted in improvements in certain cultural policy measures and instruments. The role of civil society in health policy making in South Africa: a review of the strategies adopted by the Treatment Action Campaign. Still, this report recognizes that the actual influence of non-governmental organizations and individuals depends on numerous factors such as the authority and reputation of the people acting as consultants, the willingness of senior officials in governmental agencies to accept advice, the type of problems under discussion, the possible existence of conflict of interest between organizations and individuals participating in the decision-making on cultural policies, etc. Cultural councils, even if they have the authority to make decisions, do not have the necessary capacity or resources for their work. In the article The role of civil society in the policy-making process, Vesna Čopič describes the process of adopting decisions in the public sector which principally requires the cooperation of three major interest groups: i.e. At present the Councils only exist on the national level, but the law also allows their foundation on county and town levels. Indeed the role of civil society is growing, as exemplified in its role in some important national development policies such as the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS II: 2006-2009) and the National Budget Processes since 2005. Through some examples, this paper has attempted tried to assess the importance and the role that civil society plays in cultural policy making in Croatia. of Cultures, Livre: Policy analysis recognizes, amongst others, two opposing approaches to decision-making: the rational approach, which assumes that decisions emerge from the decision-maker’s search for the most effective means of achieving policy goals; and the incremental approach which presupposes that a compromise must be achieved between different actors who often have conflicting goals and priorities. Decisions taken by those authorised to do so are by no doubts legal but are they legitimate? One of civil society’s basic functions is to give a voice to vulnerable populations and communities who are utterly invisible for policy-making purposes. After institutional shock that the EU has experienced in 2001, there have been changes that have to be accepted by the aspirant countries including Croatia. 53/01. (2) Gojko Bežovan: The Structure of the civil society in Croatia: results of the empirical research. ICOM, ICOMOS, etc.) Čopič, Vesna 2002. According to different provisions of the Law on Archives(5), Law on Libraries(6) and Law on Museums(7), the Ministry of Culture establishes consultative bodies responsible for the implementation and monitoring of certain provisions in these laws. Through some examples of cultural policy-making in Croatia, this paper will show that there are still great disparities in the level of the involvement of civil society and while some institutional involvement existed well before the early 1990s and the democratic changes, at the same time the informal process of consultation with civil society has not yet been adopted as the most effective way for making important strategic decisions in the cultural policy field. While the system established under the Law on Self-employed Artists was under continuous criticism as being non-transparent and, in a way, obsolete in the context of contemporary public policies, the example of a unilateral decision to abolish certain incentives without any analysis of possible effects and consequences, and without contemplating the possibility of introducing some new measures to counterbalance the negative effect of a government’s decision, shows weaknesses in public policy making and illustrates clearly some points raised in the Vesna Čopič’s paper on policy making: Participation of different actors in the process of reaching cultural and political decisions may primarily be considered not a value issue but a functional matter related to the efficiency and effectiveness of actual policies. The development and management of cultural policy is therefore one of the most complex areas of modern government, a kind of a balancing act, not so much between competing priorities as in other areas of policy, but between competing visions of the role of culture in society. This is a very flexible form of organizing artists that enables them to efficiently seek funding and execute different artistic projects. • Civil society and NGOs also have Das Verbindende der Kulturen | Book: The Unifying Aspects (Bosner, 1998: 92) During the socialist regime these associations were used for political socialization, and considerable funds were invested in their activity, which also resulted in massive participation with a rather hight proportion of women and children. The fact that the representatives of civil society were given certain responsibilities which were not accompanied by adequate logistical support, proves that the civil society is still regarded more as a "decoration" that can offer legitimacy to policy-makers’ decisions rather than as an equal partner in the decision-making process. Also, the Law did not include any monitoring or evaluation procedures, so it is impossible to assess the real impact of the new method of decision making. (ibid), Moreover, she insists that the process of decision-making should be synergetic and not entropic, and that ignoring one of the partners in the decision-making process may lead to mutual obstructions and a non-productive situation that then turns power into impotence. 2.3. In spite of resistance from many quarters, civil society is actually engaged in policy formulation, through a variety of formal and informal approaches. In the article The role of civil society in the policy-making process, Vesna Čopič describes the process of adopting decisions in the public sector which principally requires the cooperation of three major interest groups: i.e. Les points communs des cultures. The role of civil society in the policy-making proces . Presented by: Agustian Singgih 11/317478/EK/18640. Tìm kiếm role of civil society organisation in policy making and development , role of civil society organisation in policy making and development tại 123doc - Thư viện trực tuyến hàng đầu Việt Nam Even though the role and effectiveness of civil participation in development is a highly contested issue, South Africa has adopted civil society participation in governance as key in promoting transparency, accountability and efficiency in government activities and as such established structures such as NEDLAC to fulfil this. 2.3. In the Strategy of Cultural Development this process was described as a process of "professionalisation" and "de-etatisation", where the decision-making would be detached from the direct control of the Ministry of Culture, because the Culture Councils, consisting of independent experts, would have decision-making power. This paper examines the role of civil society, and particularly the TAC engagement with the state in health policy making, and the subsequent implementation of health policy on HIV/AIDS in post-apartheid South Africa. Lobbying can be both formal and informal; it can take place through official commissions or bodies (i.e. And unlike other countries in transition, in the first period after the democratic changes and partly because of the war, Croatia did not immediately proceed with stronger support for the development of civil society(2). Artists and professionals are continuously lobbying for improvements and adjustments to this law and other laws that effect their everyday lives and activities. The role of civil society was highly critical for peace building, and social and economic reconstruction. (ibid), Similar arguments can be found in Christopher Gordon’s article about the different roles that cultural organizations, administrators and artists, can play in the policy development process. This paper was presented in the session "Media and Cultural Aspects of Civil Society" at the International Conference "The Unifying Aspects of Cultures", INST, Vienna, 7-9 November 2003. Bežovan, Gojko: Mogu li istraživanja koristiti razvoju neprofitnih i nevladinih organizacija u Hrvatskoj? of civil society, Sektionsgruppen | Groupes de sections. lic policy making in general. According to the provisions of this law, chairpersons of each cultural council are members of the National Council for Culture - a body that adopts the National programme for culture, coordinates work of cultural councils and assists the minister of culture in determining the priorities of cultural policy. Gordon, Christopher (2001): Different roles which cultural organizations, administrators and artists can play in the policy development process (both centrally and locally). The biggest obstacle in achieving a higher degree of independence is the fact that councils do not have an independent budget. Katunarić, Vjeran; Cvjetičanin, Biserka (1998) Kulturna politika Republike Hrvatske: Nacionalni izvještaj, Ministarstvo kulture Republike Hrvatske, Zagreb. Sabi SC(1), Rieker M(2). Civil society organisations should be politically neutral in their pursuit of developmental goals and ought to practice what they preach by being democratic and accountable themselves. (Bežovan, 1998) Still, regardless of this fact, he thinks that the civil society in Croatia does not have a strong tradition. archives, theatres, museums, cultural heritage). Media and cultural aspects KEY WORDS Civil Society Organisations, Constitution-making process, Good governance, Development, Neoliberalism (, 2.3. Role of civil society organisations in policy making Ask for details ; Follow Report by VishalNegi3388 22.06.2018 Log in to add a comment Tìm kiếm the role of civil society in policy making in south africa , the role of civil society in policy making in south africa tại 123doc - Thư viện trực tuyến hàng đầu Việt Nam of civil society While health and education ministers have thousands of hospitals and schools, and millions of public employees under their control, the culture minister typically has few directly managed resources. Specifically, it focuses on the following aspects: how civil society actors organize themselves into advocacy coalitions; how policy networks are formed to influence policy processes and outcomes; and how policy research institutes contribute their research into policy. ?§(.Ó/îg»ŠÚÀO8{µ±ÒLeR/³æyÈzè=ÏÔXÊ.Q”ô¥ò$P[¬VÌ2å‹qEö}oÙµeZ K±µ“ÄÑá{¯k’'܄Íâ»*ïà©OÿZÕßOtÆ2ØÔéV™~‰õwSm±CÀe›æãæ-B托ü/k…£­J4†«C?EïWá°tWˆØ¸/èº|¯÷éŠÖ•V;—ÈïŸWn¡X¡œ&sò»cò9t[ê¸6¥úȉëà\ð@]qgÚ4¨â´%Ö$à]×]f³­×ÆO+_”§—`/Vš&Pkpe'. The Law on Cultural Councils was an attempt to reform cultural policy decision-making in Croatia and bring it closer to the decentralized system which exists in many European countries. This program examines the role that civil society actors play in shaping and making policy. Gojko Bežovan, one of the leading contemporary theorists of civil society in Croatia claims that all relevant Croatian institutions established at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century were created as a result of civic engagement. (4) Namely Law on cultural councils, Official Gazette, no. The culture minister deals with a field which is inherently changeable and often seen as marginal to the government’s central objectives. This specificity is a consequence of the reality that the decision-makers (ministers of culture) have a very small number of institutions on which they can have a direct influence. This was well articulated by Charles Landry and François Matarasso in their reflections on the most important strategic dilemmas in cultural policy. First, I will define what civil society is since this will help us understand better its role in democratic governance. When analysing the role of civil society in the cultural field it is important to emphasise that there are at least four groups of organizations with quite differing goals, objectives and ways of operation. build networks with like-minded stakeholders, so that civil society can play a stronger role in important policy processes, such as the national budget process. The war has considerably reduced the interest on the part of foreign endowments and foundations, as well as of public bodies to invest in this sector in Croatia. Role of civil society in the making of new India June 26, 2019, 6:11 PM IST Om Parida in The Rock Bottom , India , politics , TOI Facebook Twitter Linkedin Email Gramsci therefore viewed civil society as the site for problem-solving. What is needed is a procedure, whereby no new measures would be adopted without proper debate and consultation with the civil society representatives who would be affected by the particular measures. Provide examples to support your answer Definitions of civil society Civil society is the spere outside of the family, the nation and the market where people associate to develop frequent interests. The Croatian Archival Council consists of eleven members, but the Croatian Archives Association, a non-governmental professional organization that represents professionals in this field, appoints only one member to this Council. ... therefore there were efforts to incorporate civil sector in the policy-making process. to different Croatian non-governmental organizations which are not exclusively involved in artistic creation, but also operate in other segments of cultural life either as advocacy and lobbying organizations, research and study groups or managing grass-route projects in different areas such as cultural tourism, regional development or the environment. In practise, ministers of culture, even though they had the right to approve or deny the Commission’s decisions, have not exercised this right and have never overturned the decisions taken by the Commission. To illustrate some of these issues this article will analyse three different aspects of civil-society participation in cultural policy making: the general legislative framework for the involvement of the civil society in cultural policy making, attempts to decentralize decision making(4) and advocacy and lobbying. Members of the cultural councils are appointed by the Government that selects seven candidates based on recommendations from relevant art and cultural organizations and associations. The Law on Self-employed Artists has already been mentioned in this paper as a positive example of civil society involvement in the policy-making process. On one hand, there are numerous amateur arts’ organizations that are promoting local dancing and music, amateur theatre groups, brass orchestras, etc. Even though this is probably the most visible segment of civil society involvement in the cultural field, these organizations are not very relevant in the policy-making process, so their work will not be further analysed in this paper(3). Using survey, interview, and document review techniques, this crossnational study explored the potential Zakošek, Nenad (1991) Iščezavanje pojma "građansko društvo" u diskursu društvenih znanosti i mogućnosti njegove kritičke obnove, Građansko društvo i država: povijest razlike i nove rasprave, Zagreb. cultural councils, statements from assemblies of professional organizations, formal requests from renowned cultural institutions, etc. A special law regulates the rules for establishing and operating arts organizations. The development of non-profit organizations and associations in the cultural field in Croatia is also analysed in the National Report on Cultural Policy, and the authors of the National Report share many observations highlighted by Gojko Bežovan and other researchers who have dealt with the role of civil society in Croatia. Not only directly in the democratic political process, but also by harnessing the support of the public, the audience, and the private sector - which can all have a crucial influence on government attitudes. Dragojević, Sanjin (1998): Decentralizationin Katunarić, Vjeran; Cvjetičanin, Biserka: Kulturna politika Republike Hrvatske: Nacionalni izvještaj, Ministarstvo kulture Republike Hrvatske, Zagreb. The Minister of Culture appoints three renowned experts from different professional organizations without obligation to consult any of these professional organizations. The World Economic Forum launched the ‘Future Role of Civil Society… Campaigns and public protest The greatest tool in the civic arsenal is persuasion. (3) The National Report on Cultural Policy highlights a long tradition of cultural and art amateur associations in Croatia. In examining these areas, I will demonstrate how the media and civil society play a crucial role in doing so. Still, in the next section of this paper, through the example of some disputes concerning changes in provisions of the laws affecting self-employed artists during the past two years, it will be shown that there are still many weaknesses and that there is a lack of proper communication between decision-makers and representatives of the civil society, even when there is a legislative framework enhancing exchange and communication. (Gordon, 2001). But in this section, we will try to illustrate how a lack of communication and the ignoring of public opinion has resulted in a series of demonstrations and public debates, in which a majority of artists’ and professional organizations have protested against government decisions that affected the status of artists in the Republic of Croatia. Are, under certain conditions, paid out of seven members of the State budget in doing so that do. François Matarasso in their reflections on the role of civil society is since this will be established through the between! Areas, i will outline how the respect of human rights and fundamental,. Reciting poetry, literally, visual arts groups, from local branches of existing international non-governmental organizations ( i.e evidence. Evidence to engage with them more effectively: Nacionalni izvještaj, Ministarstvo kulture Republike Hrvatske, Grafika.. 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