The interactionist approach emphasizes that health and illness are social constructions; physical and mental conditions have little or no objective reality but instead are considered healthy or ill conditions only if they are defined as such by a society and its members. Critics say the conflict approach’s assessment of health and medicine is overly harsh and its criticism of physicians’ motivation far too cynical. One of these criticisms is that symbolic interactionism is largely deprived of a real social envision. The criticisms toward symbolic interactionism were more intense earlier in its history than of late due to its perceived departure from scientific methodology … This analysis strives to explain how people’s social standing affects their … Physicians’ motivation for doing so has been both good and bad. As we will see, the evidence of disparities in health and health care is vast and dramatic. Through its concepts and guiding assumptions, symbolic interactionism fosters theoretically-driven research with implications for medical sociology, which we address here. endobj 1.2 Sociological Perspectives on Social Problems, 1.3 Continuity and Change in Social Problems, 2.1 The Measurement and Extent of Poverty, 2.2 Who the Poor Are: Social Patterns of Poverty, 3.1 Racial and Ethnic Inequality: A Historical Prelude, 3.5 Dimensions of Racial and Ethnic Inequality, 3.6 Explaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality, 3.7 Reducing Racial and Ethnic Inequality, 4.4 Violence against Women: Rape and Sexual Assault, Chapter 5: Sexual Orientation and Inequality, 5.2 Public Attitudes about Sexual Orientation, 5.3 Inequality Based on Sexual Orientation, 5.4 Improving the Lives of the LGBT Community, 6.3 Life Expectancy and the Graying of Society, 6.4 Biological and Psychological Aspects of Aging, 6.6 Reducing Ageism and Helping Older Americans, 7.5 Drug Policy and the War on Illegal Drugs, 7.6 Addressing the Drug Problem and Reducing Drug Use, 10.2 Sociological Perspectives on the Family, 10.3 Changes and Problems in American Families, 11.1 An Overview of Education in the United States, 11.2 Sociological Perspectives on Education, 11.3 Issues and Problems in Elementary and Secondary Education, 11.4 Issues and Problems in Higher Education, 12.2 Sociological Perspectives on Work and the Economy, 13.1 Sociological Perspectives on Health and Health Care, 13.2 Global Aspects of Health and Health Care, 13.3 Problems of Health in the United States, 13.4 Problems of Health Care in the United States, 14.2 Sociological Perspectives on Urbanization, Chapter 15: Population and the Environment, 15.1 Sociological Perspectives on Population and the Environment, 15.4 Addressing Population Problems and Improving the Environment, 16.1 Sociological Perspectives on War and Terrorism, 16.4 Preventing War and Stopping Terrorism. (�s�x�w (2009). Social inequality characterizes the quality of health and the quality of health care. It is important to note that no theory is right or wrong. ����$(L\�$����$���d����J&k,�1�0�#�W�;'* 1 John Hewitt, Self & Society, 9th Edition, Allyn & Bacon, 2002. Although much of his discussion implies a person temporarily enters a sick role and leaves it soon after following adequate medical care, people with chronic illnesses can be locked into a sick role for a very long time or even permanently. 4 0 obj In what ways did this person come across as an authority figure possessing medical knowledge? Symbolic Interactionism is often times related and connected with social structure. Many serious health conditions do exist and put people at risk for their health regardless of what they or their society thinks. Symbolic interactionism and cultural studies : the politics of interpretation Norman K. Denzin (Twentieth-century social theory) Blackwell, 1992 : hard : pbk Functionalism versus the Conflict Theory versus Symbolic Interactionism Functionalism, the conflict theory and symbolic interactionism are three distinct and common sociological perspectives that share differences and similarities due to the methods in which they evaluate society. Strengths The theory is fairly simple, allowing for most people to understand its general assumptions and relate to them. Management of the situation is perhaps especially important during a gynecological exam, as first discussed in Chapter 12 “Work and the Economy”. Symbols i. An example is the development of the diagnosis of ADHD, or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Rao, A., & Seaton, M. (2010). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. To the extent that physicians do not always provide the best medical care, the hierarchy that Parsons favored is at least partly to blame. Critics fault the symbolic interactionist approach for implying that no illnesses have objective reality. Nursing Standard, 25(38), 28–28. Its growth in popularity coincides with the constructivist aspects of symbolic interactionism. Basic Concepts of Symbolic Interactionism I. If someone is driving drunk and smashes into a tree, there is much less sympathy than if the driver had been sober and skidded off the road in icy weather. Phenomenology focuses … Depending on the research at hand, one may be more efficient or cost effective, but that does not make the others wrong. 2 0 obj Physicians also have a role to perform, said Parsons. The conflict approach emphasizes inequality in the quality of health and of health-care delivery (Weitz, 2013). Opium use was considered neither a major health nor legal problem. Mead argued that people's selves are social products, but that these selves are also purposive and creative, and believed that the true test of any theory was that it was "useful in solving complex social problems". birgerking – What I Really Do… ADD/ADHD – CC BY 2.0. They may have honestly felt that midwives were inadequately trained, but they also fully recognized that obstetrical care would be quite lucrative (Ehrenreich & English, 2005). Lorber, J., & Moore, L. J. x��\Y��6~o���}�m�(�� sd6�@v�Iy��A��Bd�+���ߪ�(ɖ؃͐�=�%���:�:��7MWn�MǾ���M��'��>�?�����Gy�c�+EWև��O�;|�{Y?�Y�r�8�}�,�~�F����wv��y�p{s��3�� b���;`��Q���� If all these expectations are met, said Parsons, sick people are treated as sick by their family, their friends, and other people they know, and they become exempt from their normal obligations to all these people. When the physician is a man, this situation is fraught with potential embarrassment and uneasiness because a man is examining and touching a woman’s genital area. List the assumptions of the functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist perspectives on health and medicine. The medicalization of society: On the transformation of human conditions into treatable disorders. The physician-patient relationship is hierarchical: The physician provides instructions, and the patient needs to follow them. The conflict approach also critiques efforts by physicians over the decades to control the practice of medicine and to define various social problems as medical ones. Symbolic interactionism tends to Ƴ�&�t'�Jj�T���@�`U_�i/O�\�����S�Y+�Y��-;z�>������WZST���Gë�0�@!�ܢ~_�r��J����i�(#�R)�ٓ|j�� r-/��)V�B��/�%��h�9y����&��o��d*���Cx-�S��N�e�RC�€+K�����B{OP�Jb�/tm�-'�6���c[ ����� �PU PKU4�yr Critics also say the approach neglects the effects of social inequality for health and illness. Think of the last time you visited a physician or another health-care professional. Many experts say today that patients need to reduce this hierarchy by asking more questions of their physicians and by taking a more active role in maintaining their health. This concept suggests that Symbolic Interactionism is a construction of people’s social reality . .b�D���ڔ�����V�F��8���y�1�|��'.��m��>����i���QV?����Z �i��ď��� Vz���*h��KV>{D{e��GO���M/n�)�rS�{x�2��z�/�?��N�}��7�l;�Z����\�W�;d�W����Q"��L���Gd�i�B�(��)Y�5J]�����_W����W�:�a�#,_Ih�Fܞi��� i�Hh]��,�y��σ"_i'�ը�����������z����ו�[�Ql��F�\�A��B)h�2X-vG�m����~�,3����A�uf�I��ܻ�n�'����DU�66?MM�����մ�p���UJ�i�a�"Z�%�@����W�D�j$nR���x�� �~��˸����}N��%�6FI�癉��[��3����,*w��9�G���v��=�A�&�� ���wC���#��7B6�����|E(�}��G�G�1�#�V/R! stream <>/Metadata 35 0 R/ViewerPreferences 36 0 R>> Saints, sinners and standards of femininity: Discursive constructions of anorexia nervosa and obesity in women’s magazines. 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