The exact figure was not known. He wanted Iran to adopt a form of religion that would be more acceptable to Sunnis and suggested that Iran adopt a form of Shi'ism he called "Ja'fari", in honour of the sixth Shi'a imam Ja'far al-Sadiq. 1–16, 175–210. What is a son? Adil Shah was probably involved in the assassination plot. [37] When Nader asked him why he remained silent, Hasan-Ali replied that the best thing for Nader to do would be assembling all leading men of the state, in order to receive their agreement in "a signed and sealed document of consent". The conqueror Nadir Shah and his successors were followed by the Zand dynasty, founded by Karim Kahn, and later the Qajar (1795-1925) and the Pahlavi dynasties (1925-1979). Member of the French Academy of Sciences, Pierre Bayen wrote about Nader Shah the following: “He was the horror of the Ottoman Empire, the conqueror of India, the ruler of Persia and all of Asia. [17], Nader rose to power during a period of chaos in Iran after a rebellion by the Hotaki Pashtuns had overthrown the weak Shah Sultan Husayn, while the arch-enemy of the Safavids, the Ottomans, as well as the Russians had seized Iranian territory for themselves. Nader had the greatest contempt for the weak, depraved Mahmud Shah, who, according to the local chronicler of that era, “was always with his mistress in his arms and a glass in his hand,” and was the lowest libertine and simply a puppet ruler. While Nader was absent in the east, Tahmasp tried to assert himself by launching a foolhardy campaign to recapture Yerevan. But Nader Shah … Despite its appearance as a constitutional monarchy, the document effectively instituted a Royal oligarchy, and popular participation was merely an illusion. He was surprised in his sleep by around fifteen conspirators, and stabbed to death. As he moved into the Mughal territories, he was loyally accompanied by his Georgian subject and future king of eastern Georgia, Erekle II, who led a Georgian contingent as a military commander as part of Nader's force. [32] Nader, furious, saw that the moment had come to ease Tahmasp from power. Nader subsequently took on the title Tahmasp Qoli (Servant of Tahmasp). In 1740 he conquered Khanate of Khiva. In 1747, Nader set off for Khorasan, where he intended to punish Kurdish rebels. This was a hat with four peaks which symbolised the first four caliphs. With the wealth he gained, Nader started to build an Iranian navy. [65] In the far east, Ahmad Shah Durrani had already proclaimed independence, marking the foundation of modern Afghanistan. Nader Shah (en persa: نادر شاه ) (su verdadero nombre era Nader Qoli Beig) (22 de octubre de 1688 - junio de 1747) fue un sah de Persia, fundador de la dinastía afsárida que reinó desde 1736 hasta su muerte. “After the death of Nader Shah, the Sovereignty Struggles in Iran and the Iran Policy of Ottoman State” Abdurrahman ATE Ş∗ ÖZET Bu çalı şmada Af şar hanedanının kurucusu Nadir … [13], This article is about the Afghan King. Erekle II and Teimuraz II, who, in 1744, had been made the kings of Kakheti and Kartli respectively by Nader himself for their loyal service,[62] capitalized on the eruption of instability, and declared de facto independence. Nāder Shāh Afshār or Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه افشار ; also known as Nāder Qoli Beg - نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khān - تهماسپ قلی خان) (November, 1688 [1] or August 6, 1698 [5] – June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. The Moghan plain was specifically chosen for its size and "abundance of fodder". This concept resembled, in broad terms, the origin myths of 15th century Anatolian Turkmen dynasties. Two days after his arrival in Delhi, rumours were spread in the city that Nadir Shah had met with an untimely death or had been seized or imprisoned by Nadir Shah in September 1741. on, an account in German of the expeditions of Nadir Shah to India, the deeds of the Mughal Shah Al In 1747 after Nadir Shah's death, the ataliq Muhammad Rahim Bi mur In 1740, it was conquered Nader also secured one of the Mughal emperor's daughters, Jahan Afruz Banu Begum, as a bride for his youngest son. [18] He recaptured the island of Bahrain from the Arabs. The new shah of the Ghilzai Afghans, Ashraf, decided to move against Nader but in September 1729, Nader defeated him at the Battle of Damghan and again decisively in November at Murchakhort. Nader became the minister of war during Amanullah while concealing his ambitions to become the King. At the age of 61, after a violent reign of 11 years and three months, Nadir Shah died on June 19, 1747. In 1849, the British conquered Punjab and the Lahore treaty was proclaimed. As Shah, Nadir used every means at his disposal to extract the maximum possible revenues from his provinces by any means necessary, including the threat of torture and death. Despite being outnumbered by six to one, Nader Shah crushed the Mughal army in less than three hours at the huge Battle of Karnal on 13 February 1739. Nader suggested to his closest intimates, after a great hunting party on the Moghan plains (presently split between Azerbaijan and Iran), that he should be proclaimed the new king (shah) in place of the young Abbas III. The Iranian troops left Delhi at the beginning of May 1739, but before they left, he ceded back to Muhammad Shah all territories to the east of the Indus which he had overrun. Nader Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار‎; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688[5] – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in Iranian history, ruling as Shah of Iran (Persia) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion. He killed 20,000 to 30,000 citizens (men, women, and children) of Delhi in about 6 hours. Nadir Shah’s Invasion (1738-1739) Babar was the first of the Mughals to invade India in 1521, and seize power at Delhi by defeating the army of the Lodhi Sultan Ibrahim at Panipat in 1526. towards December 1719, Mohammed Shah Rangila was placed on the throne inspite of the protestations of his widowed mother. His numerous campaigns created a great empire that, at its greatest extent, briefly encompassed what is now part of or includes Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the North Caucasus, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Pakistan, Oman and the Persian Gulf, but his military spending had a ruinous effect on the Iranian economy. [29] In 1738 Nader Shah besieged and destroyed the last Hotaki seat of power at Kandahar. He became so powerful that he decided to depose the last members of the Safavid dynasty, which had ruled Iran for over 200 years, and become Shah himself in 1736. When rebellions broke out in 1743 upon the death of Muhammad Hakim, the shah dispatched the ataliq’s son Muhammad Rahim Bi, who had accompanied him to Iran, to quell them. He also took the legendary “Koh-i-noor” diamond. His army was a mix of Shi'a and Sunni (with a notable minority of Christians) and included his own Qizilbash as well as Uzbeks, Afghans, Christian Georgians and Armenians,[44][45] and others. [37] The summonses for the people to attend had gone out in November 1735, and they began arriving in January 1736. the death of the great Safavi leader Nadir Shah in 1747, indigenous Pashtuns, who became known as the Durrani, began a period of at least nominal rule in Afghanistan that lasted until 1978. Sword of Persia,[14] or the Second Alexander. [35] Adil Shah was deposed within a year. Until the advent of the Zands and Qajars, its rulers had various forms of autonomy, but stayed vassals and subjects to the Iranian king. [57], Nader changed the Iranian coinage system. The strong character of Nader Shah is indicated by the fact that having achieved much fame and glory, he did not allow his pleasers to find great ancestors in the darkness of his origin. He was born in the year 1722 (age 50-51 years at the time of death) in Herat (then Hotak Empire, present-day Afghanistan) or Multan (then Mughal Empire, present-day Pakistan). 1883-1933 (Birth and death years) Biography Muhammad Nadir Shah (aka Khan) King of Afghanistan 1929-33. On hearing the news, Reza's wife, who was Tahmasp's sister, committed suicide. Nadir Shah dehli, death, advanced, ahmad, day, ad, khan, led, persian and occupied Page: 1 2 . This once powerful Muslim state to the east was falling apart as the nobles became increasingly disobedient and local opponents such as the Sikhs and Hindu Marathas of the Maratha Empire were expanding upon its territory. Nadir Shah slaughtered everyone in the city for 6 hours in a day and killed lakhs of people in the city. Bring me my weapons!’ The assassins were struck with fear by these words and wanted to escape, but ran straight into the two chiefs of the murder-conspiracy, who allayed their fears and made them go into the tent again. Mohammed Nadir Shah, King of Afghanistan Mohammed Nadir Shah (born Mohammad Nadir Khan) reigned as King of Afghanistan from October 15, 1929 until his assassination on November 8, 1933. Perhaps it was his illness that made Nader lose the initiative in his war against the Lezgin tribes of Daghestan. His death was announced on national television by President Karzai, who said "He was the servant of his people, the friend of … It is worth reflecting on this remarkable event in early 18th century – an episode that underscores the perils of a weak state. In 1738, Nader Shah conquered Kandahar, the last outpost of the Hotaki dynasty. For the 20th-century king of Afghanistan, see, A contemporary court portrait of Nader Shah by Mohammad Reza Hendi (c. 1740), now held in London's, First Ottoman campaign and the regain of the Caucasus, North Caucasus, Central Asia, Arabia, and the second Ottoman war, Nader's exact date of birth is unknown but August 6 is the "likeliest" according to Axworthy, p. 17 (and note) and, Tucker, Ernest, "Nadir Shah and the Ja'fari Mazhab reconsidered", in. century that Imam Reza was martyred by poison. Today’s installment concludes Nadir Shah Captures Delhi, our selection from History of Persia by Sir John Malcolm published in 1815. Nader Shah became the Persian ruler in 1730. p. 19 FK Publications. Wiki/Biography Ahmad Shah Abdali was also known as Ahmed Shah Durrani or Ahmad Shah Abdali Durr-i-Durrani. Nader asked for the Afghan rebels to be handed over, but the Mughal emperor refused. [1] He captured Kalakani and executed him by firing squad on the west wall of the Arg on 1 November 1929, along with Kalakani's brother, and 9 other members of Kalakani's inner circle.[6]. [18] Like the late Safavids he resettled tribes. "History". He never forgives the guilty, no matter what rank he is. Oman and the Uzbek khanates of Bukhara and Khiva regained independence, while the Ottoman Empire regained the lost territories in Western Armenia and Mesopotamia. King Abdul Rahman advised his incumbent crown-prince not to allow "Al-Yahya" family to enter the country under any terms or conditions. Nader belonged to the Turkoman[15] Afshar tribe, a semi-nomadic tribe settled in Khorasan in northeastern Iran,[16] which had supplied military power to the Safavid dynasty since the time of Shah Ismail I. Tomb of Zahir Shah On 23 July 2007, Zahir Shah passed away in the compound of the presidential palace in Kabul after prolonged illness. He imitated their military prowess and—especially later in his reign—their cruelty. Nadir faced many insurrections, including the Koh Daman revolt (29 November – 30 June), the Shinwari rebellion (February 1930), operations against Ibrahim Beg (November 1930 – April 1931), the Ghilzai threat (1931), the Darre Khel revolt (November 1932), and disturbances in Khost. Nader used the pretext of his Afghan enemies taking refuge in India to cross the border and invade the militarily weak but still extremely wealthy far eastern empire,[47] and in a brilliant campaign against the governor of Peshawar he took a small contingent of his forces on a daunting flank march through nearly impassable mountain passes and took the enemy forces positioned at the mouth of the Khyber Pass completely by surprise, utterly beating them despite being outnumbered two-to-one. [76], Shah of Iran (1688-1747) (ruled 1736-1747), This article is about the Persian shah. At the same time, the Abdali Afghans rebelled and besieged Mashhad, forcing Nader to suspend his campaign and save his brother, Ebrahim. [34] This was the only time that he was ever defeated in battle. He had no source of income other than the sticks he gathered for firewood, which he transported to the market. When his orders had been carried out, however, Nader instantly regretted it, crying out to his courtiers, "What is a father? Sultan Husayn's son had declared himself Shah Tahmasp II, but found little support and fled to the Qajar tribe, who offered to back him. The Peacock Throne, thereafter, served as a symbol of Iranian imperial might. [23] His family lived a nomadic way of life. [2] Unlike his father, Amir Habibullah had so many weaknesses, including philandery. [3] He later became a general under King Amanullah Khan and led the Afghan National Army in the Third Anglo-Afghan War. After the overthrow of Amanullah Khan's monarchy by Habibullah Kalakani, he returned to Afghanistan with his army of Mehsud and Wazir tribesmen and took most of Afghanistan. In 1768, Christian VII of Denmark commissioned Sir William Jones to translate a Persian language biography of Nader Shah written by his Minister Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi into French. Nādir Shāh, also spelled Nāder Shāh, original name Nadr Qolī Beg, also called Ṭahmāsp Qolī Khan, (born Oct. 22, 1688, Kobhān, Ṣafavid Iran—died June 1747, Fatḥābād), Iranian ruler and conqueror who created an Iranian empire that stretched from the Indus River to … SM Sajjadi Nohay & Majalis 3,344 views 1:16:09 Consequences and Takeaways. Finished translations were presented to Nāder Shah in Qazvīn in June, 1741, who, however, was not impressed. By 1740, Durrani and his older brother have joined Nader Shah’s forces, among other members of the Abdali clan. Nader Shah was born in the fortress of Dastgerd into the Qereqlu clan of the Afshars, a semi-nomadic Turkic Qizilbash tribe settled in the northern valleys of Khorasan, a province in the northeast of the Persian Empire. He denounced the treaty, seeking popular support for a war against the Ottomans. [53] Many historians believe that Nader attacked the Mughal Empire to, perhaps, give his country some breathing space after previous turmoils. In March 1735, he signed a treaty with the Russians in Ganja by which the latter agreed to withdraw all of their troops from Iranian territory,[35][36] those which had not been ceded back by the 1732 Treaty of Resht yet, resulting in the reestablishment of Iranian rule over all of the Caucasus and northern mainland Iran again. At its peak, under such figures as Abbas the Great, Safavid Iran had been a powerful empire, but by the early 18th century the state was in serious decline and the reigning shah, Sultan Husayn, was a weak ruler. Starting from a young age, Napoleon Bonaparte also used to read about and admire Nader Shah. His funeral prayer was held in the Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar and was attended by large number of people. He may have perceived a need to unite disparate components of the ummah against the expanding power of Europe at that time, however his view of Muslim unity was different from later concepts of it. [52] The booty they had collected was loaded on 700 elephants, 4,000 camels, and 12,000 horses. In earlier times, Mashhad was known as a small region called Sanabad near the ancient city of Tus. It took Nader fourteen months to crush this uprising. Nader decided, as he continued the 1730-35 war, that he could win back the territory in Armenia and Georgia by seizing Ottoman Baghdad and then offering it in exchange for the lost provinces, but his plan went badly amiss when his army was routed by the Ottoman general Topal Osman Pasha near the city in 1733. 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